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ICTD Key Tems and Acronyms

Page history last edited by Christy Martell 11 years, 7 months ago

Key Terms

Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD)

·         ICTD or ICT$D is a general term referring to the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) within the field of socio-economic development. ICTs can be applied either in the direct sense, where their use directly benefits the disadvantaged population in some manner, or in an indirect sense, where the ICTs assist aid organizations or non-governmental organizations or governments in order to improve socio-economic conditions. In many impoverished regions of the world, legislative and political measures are required to facilitate or enable application of ICTs, especially with respect to monopolistic communications structures and censorship laws. (Source: Wikipedia)

Appropriate Technology

·         Appropriate technology (AT) is technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental, ethical, cultural, social and economical aspects of the community it is intended for. With these goals in mind, AT typically requires fewer resources, is easier to maintain, has a lower overall cost and less of an impact on the environment compared to industrialized practices. (Source: Appropriate Technology Sourcebook: Introduction" VillageEarth.org. Accessed on 5 July 2008.)

Digital Divide

·         Digital divide refers to the gap between those people with effective access to digital and information technology and those without. It includes the imbalances in physical access to technology as well as the imbalances in resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen. In other words, it’s the unequal access by some members of the society to information and communications technology, and the unequal acquisition of related skills. Groups often discussed in the context of a digital divide include gender, income, race and location. The term global digital divide refers to differences in technology access between countries. (Source: Wikipedia)

e-Governance

·         e-Governance is using ICT to provide government services to isolated individuals and expand government transparency.  ICT networks can offer better public services to citizens by more efficient and effective dissemination of information and delivery of essential government services. e-Government can also generate a greater sense of community participation, and improve informed decision-making and development program implementation.

e-Health

·         e-Health refers to the use of ICTs to promote social inclusion of all members of society by enabling equitable access to health care services as well as empowering citizens to better manage their own health and to participate more effectively in the health care process.

Acronyms

BOT - build-operate-transfer

EDI - electronic data interchange

ICT - information and communication technology

IFC - International Finance Corporation

IMF - International Monetary Fund

ISP - Internet service provider

MDGs - Millennium Development Goals

PIACs - public Internet access centers

PTO - public telecommunications operator

SME - small and medium enterprise

VoIP - voice-over Internet protocol

MFI – Microfinance Institution

FDI - foreign direct investors

 

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